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The COVID-19 pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic is an event that the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 ( English : Coronavirus disease 2019 , abbreviated as COVID-19 ) throughout the world for all countries. This disease is caused by a new type of coronavirus , named SARS-CoV-2 .  The COVID-19 outbreak was first detected in Wuhan City , Hubei Province , China on December 1, 2019, and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. As of November 14, 2020, more than 53,281,350 cases have been reported from more than 219 countries and regions worldwide, resulting in more than 1,301,021 people died and more than 34,394,214 people recovered.
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The SARS-CoV-2 virus is thought to be spread between people primarily through respiratory droplets produced during coughing .     These splashes can also result from sneezing and normal breathing. In addition, the virus can spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching someone's face.  The disease COVID-19 is most contagious when someone who has it have symptoms, although spread may occur before symptoms appear.  The time period between exposure to the virus and onset of symptoms is usually around five days, but can range from two to fourteen days.  Common symptoms include fever , cough and shortness of breath.   Complications can include pneumonia and severe acute respiratory disease . There is no vaccine orspecific antiviral treatmentfor this disease. The primary treatment given is symptomatic and supportive therapy. Recommended preventive measures include washing hands , covering your mouth when coughing, keeping your distance from other people , and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected
Efforts to prevent the spread of corona virus, including travel restrictions, quarantines , imposition of curfew , delays and cancellations of events, as well as the closure of the facility. These include the Hubei quarantine , national quarantines in Italy and elsewhere in Europe, and curfews in China and South Korea,    various country border closings or restrictions on incoming passengers,  [ 15] screening at airports and train stations,  as well as travel information regarding areas with local transmission.     Schools and universities have closed either nationally or locally in more than 124 countries and affected more than 1.2 billion students
The pandemic has caused global socioeconomic disruption,  the postponement or cancellation of sporting and cultural events,  and widespread concerns about shortages of goods are driving panic buying .   Misinformation and conspiracy theories about the virus have spread online ,   and there have been incidents of xenophobia and racism against Chinese and other East or Southeast Asian people.
The first suspected case was reported on December 31, 2019.  Early symptoms began appearing three weeks earlier on December 8, 2019.  The market was closed on January 1, 2020 and people experiencing similar symptoms were quarantined.  Approximately 700 people who were in contact with the suspected sufferer, including +400 hospital workers, are under quarantine.  As specialized PCR testing for infection detection developed , 41 people in Wuhan were found to have the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus ,  two of them are husband and wife, one of whom has never been to the market, and three of them are members of a family who work in a fish shop.   Casualties began to fall on January 9,  and January 16, 2020
Cases confirmed outside mainland China include 3 women and 1 man in Thailand, two men in Hong Kong, two men in Vietnam, one man in Japan, one woman in South Korea, one man in Singapore, one woman in Taiwan and one man. in the United States.    These figures are supported by experts such as
On January 17, an Imperial College London group in the UK published an estimate that there were 1,723 cases ( 95% confidence interval , 427–4,471) with the onset of symptoms of the virus on January 12, 2020. This estimate was based on the initial spread pattern of the 2019-nCoV virus to Thailand and Japan. They also concluded that "continued human-to-human transmission should not be ruled out" ..   When further cases came to light, they recounted that "there were 4,000 2019-nCoV cases in Wuhan City ... on January 18, 2020 "
On January 20, China reported a sharp increase in cases with nearly 140 new patients, including two in Beijing and one in Shenzhen .  As of March 3, the number of laboratory-confirmed cases was 93,000, with more than 80,000 in mainland China, and the rest in several other countries.
As of 27 September 2020, there were 994,216 deaths linked to COVID-19. According to China's NHC, the vast majority of those who die were older patients - about 80% of recorded deaths were from those over 60, and 75% had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular disease and diabetes .  The first reported case of death was a 61-year-old man on January 9, 2020 who was first admitted to a Wuhan hospital on December 27, 2019.  The first death case outside of China occurred in the Philippines, where a 44-year-old Chinese citizen suffered from severe pneumonia and died on February 1.  On February 8, 2020, it was announced that a Japanese national and a US citizen had died from the virus in Wuhan. They are the first foreigners to die from the coronavirus.  The first case of death outside Asia occurred in Paris , France on February 15, 2020, when an 80-year-old Chinese tourist from Hubei died after being hospitalized since January 25.
Phylogenetic and taxonomic
The new corona virus was originally symbolized by the WHO 2019-nCoV, with the letter n which means novel or new, and CoV which means coronavirus or corona virus.  This virus belongs to the order Nidovirales , family Coronaviridae , and genus Betacoronavirus (Beta-CoV). The genus betacoronavirus consists of four lineages (subgenus), where 2019-nCoV together with SARS-CoV is classified in lineage B (subgenus Sarbecovirus ).   The 2019-nCoV virus is the seventh species in the Coronaviridae family capable of infecting humans, in addition to 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV , and SARS-CoV . On February 11, 2020, the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV) named this virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 , abbreviated as SARS-CoV-2) which is a strain in the SARS-CoV species.  
The SARS-CoV-2 genome has been isolated. This virus has RNA with a length of about 30 thousand base pairs . The genome sequencing shows that SARS-CoV-2 has a similarity rate with SARS-CoV of 79.5% and the bat coronavirus of 96%.  A number of SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been isolated and reported including BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-01/2019, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-04/2020, BetaCoV / Wuhan / IVDC-HB-05/2019 , BetaCoV / Wuhan / WIV04 / 2019, and BetaCoV / Wuhan / IPBCAMS-WH-01/2019 from the National Institute for Virus Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Pathogen Biology Institute , and Jinyintan Hospital Wuhan
The basic reproductive rate for human-to-human transmission of the virus is estimated to be between 2 and 4. This number describes how many newly infected living things are likely to transmit the virus in the human population. The new coronavirus has reportedly been able to deliver chains of up to four people so far
On January 22, 2020, scientists from Peking University , Guangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ningbo University and Wuhan College of Biological Engineering published an article after looking at "humans, bats, chickens , hedgehogs , pangolins and two species of snakes",  who concluded that "2019-nCoV appears to be a recombinant virus between a bat coronavirus and a coronavirus of unknown origin" ... and ... "snakes are the most likely reservoir of wildlife for the 2019-nCoV virus" which then spreads to humans.   Some other scientists suggest that 2019-nCoV was developed as a result of a "combined bat and snake virus
A preprint article published on January 23, 2020 in the journal bioRxiv written by researchers from the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Chinese Academy of Sciences University and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention stated that this coronavirus likely originated in bats, as their analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV was 96% identical at the overall genome level to the bat coronavirus.
The results of the study have shown that the 2019-nCoV virus enters the human body through the ACE 2 receptor , just like the SARS virus
Symptoms on clinical presentation
Reported symptoms include fever in 90% of cases,  fatigue and dry cough in 80% of cases,   and shortness of breath in 20%, with respiratory distress in 15%.    X-rays of the chest show signs in both lungs.   Vital signs are generally stable at the time of admission for those admitted to hospital.  Blood tests usually show a low white blood cell count (leukopenia and lymphocytopenia). 
On 15 January 2020, WHO published a diagnostic testing protocol for 2019-nCoV, developed by the virology team from Charité Hospital in Germany
Concerns over a lack of reports
Due to a lack of medical personnel and medical equipment in the affected areas, many hospitals failed to identify any coronavirus cases while many patients with coronavirus-like symptoms were labeled as "severe pneumonia".   Incidentally, many of those with symptoms of the 2019-nCoV virus decided to stay at home instead of going to the hospital because of the long waiting time and tight conditions.  Therefore, researchers from Northeastern University and Imperial College London estimate that the number of these cases may be five or 10 times greater than those reported.  
Additional concern arises because of China's handling of the SARS outbreak in 2003, where the Chinese government hid infected patients from WHO inspectors and reported the number of SARS cases that were not reported
Prevention and control
2019-nCoV does not currently have an effective treatment or vaccine , although efforts to develop several drugs are underway.   Symptoms include fever , difficulty breathing and coughing ,  which are described as " influenza " symptoms .  To prevent infection, WHO recommends "washing hands regularly, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing… [and] avoiding close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness (such as coughing and sneezing)." Although there is no specific treatment for the common human coronavirus, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises that residents infected with the virus can relieve their symptoms by taking the common cold medicine, drinking fluids, and resting.  Some countries require citizens to report flu-like symptoms to their doctor, especially if they have visited mainland China. 
The situation in Wuhan is being monitored in light of the upcoming third round of the 2020 AFC Women's Olympics Qualifying Tournament , some of which will be held in the city from February 3 to 9, 2020.  On January 22, 2020, AFC announced that it would move Group A matches which were originally scheduled to be played in Wuhan which included their national teams from Australia , China , Taiwan and Thailand -to Nanjing for corona virus outbreak.  A few days later, the AFC announced that together the Australian Football Federationthey will move the match to Sydney .  The boxing qualifiers for the 2020 Asia-Pacific Olympics , originally scheduled to be held in Wuhan on February 3-14, were also canceled and moved to Amman , Jordan to be held between March 3-11, 2020.
The effective quarantine for travel in and out of Wuhan will take effect from 23 January 2020, 10:00 local time onwards. Flights and trains to and from Wuhan, public buses, the metro system and others have been suspended until further notice. The move is an attempt to stop the spread of the virus from Wuhan and to ensure the health and safety of its citizens, according to the Xinhua News Agency. Large-scale meetings and group tours were also postponed.  Various logistical problems have occurred following the quarantine, including rising food prices  and difficulties for medical staff going to hospital. 
The Chinese government announced 11:00 p.m. (UTC + 8) on January 23 to close Chibi City effective 12 a.m. on January 24, preceded by prefecture-level cities such as Huanggang, Ezhou , and Wuhan. 
Since the city of Wuhan has been isolated, residents scramble to nearby shops to stock up on essential items. There have been reports of long lines at supermarkets, pharmacies and gas stations - residents flocked to gas stations over false rumors about running out of gas. After the quarantine, the prices of goods increased significantly in Wuhan.  
A SARS epidemiologist and virologist with a team of medical specialists who recently flew back to Hong Kong after their one-day inspection of Wuhan said the Wuhan outbreak was at least 10 times bigger than SARS and called on citizens to stay away from Wuhan as soon as possible.    
Several posts on Weibo indicate that hospitals in Wuhan have been overloaded with thousands of people with fever and are highly critical of the reliability of the statistics announced by the Chinese government even though the posts are now deleted for unknown reasons.
Outside Mainland China, several cruise ships were quarantined after passengers developed symptoms or tested positive for SARS-nCoV-2. Costa Smeralda was quarantined on Jan.30 near Civitavecchia , Italy, after passengers developed flu-like symptoms - the quarantine ended when tests for the virus found negative.  The next two ships were quarantined on February 5, namely the Diamond Princess at the Port of Yokohama , Japan and World Dream , which returned to Hong Kong after being refused entry to Kaohsiung , Taiwan. In both cases, both passengers and crew tested positive.    On February 10 passengers were allowed to disembark from World Dream "without needing to self-quarantine after leaving."  In addition, despite not being quarantined the MS Westerdam was refused entry by several ports after leaving Hong Kong on 1 February.
Evacuation of diplomats and foreign nationals from Wuhan
The governments of Belgium , the Philippines , Thailand and the United States are planning evacuation flights for their nationals from China.     Brazil , the Czech Republic , France , Pakistan , India , Japan , South Korea and Russia are also considering similar measures.      
Sri Lanka and Panama began repatriating their students from China.   Myanmar began repatriating fifty of their students from around Wuhan. 
Vietnam allowed four extraordinary flights to bring home passengers from Wuhan from January 24 to 27,  and arranged flights to evacuate their country's citizens and diplomats. 
On January 29, Australia and New Zealand announced that they would work together to evacuate their citizens from Wuhan to Christmas Island . There are between 50-82 New Zealanders in Wuhan and 600 Australians in Hubei province including 140 Australian children in Wuhan.  
On January 29, South Korea made last-minute preparations to transport about 700 South Koreans from Wuhan , including finalizing logistical details with the Chinese Government. South Korean officials prepared two planes with two sets of medical teams consisting of about 20 doctors, nurses and officials. 
On February 1, a charter plane departed from Thailand for Wuhan to evacuate 64 Thai nationals led by Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul . The plane includes a medical team that specializes in respiratory infections and emergency medicine. 
On February 2, 2020, a team of officers from the Malaysian Embassy in Beijing rushed to Wuhan by road to rescue and evacuate 120 of its citizens from Wuhan and its surroundings. The evacuation order was issued following a Cabinet decision on 29 January 2020.
A special hospital called Huoshenshan Hospital has been built in an effort to contain the coronavirus outbreak and to better quarantine patients. Reportedly, the government of Wuhan City has asked a state-owned company (China Construction Third Bureau Group) to rebuild accommodation in Wuhan into a Virus Therapy Center at the fastest rate compared to the SARS outbreak in 2003. On January 24, the Wuhan authorities detailed the plans, saying they planned to build the Huoshenshan Hospital within six days of the announcement and start operating on February 3, 2020. The specialty hospital will have 813 beds  and it will take up 25,000 land. square meter. The hospital was created based on the Xiaotangshan Hospital , which was created in the aftermath of the 2003 SARS outbreak, which itself was built in just a week.   State media reported that there were 1,500 workers and nearly 300 units of construction machinery at the site at its peak, and another reserve team of 2,000 workers had gathered. 
The local authorities announced plans to build a second specialty hospital on January 25, which will be named Leishenshan Hospital , with a capacity of 1,600 beds;  The hospital began operations on February 6.   Several people voiced their concerns via social media, saying the authorities' decision to build another hospital in a very short time suggests the severity of the outbreak could be much worse than expected
On January 24, 2020, the authorities announced that they would convert an empty building in Huangzhou District , Huanggang to a 1,000-bed capacity hospital called the Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Center . Construction began the following day by 500 personnel and the building started receiving patients on January 28, 2020 at 22.30 local time
Wuhan is the seventh largest city in China, with a population of over 11 million people. The city is a major transportation hub in central China, which is located about 700 miles (1100 km) south of Beijing ,  500 miles (800 km) west of Shanghai , and 600 miles (970 km) north of Hong Kong .  Wuhan Airport has direct flights to major European cities: six weekly flights to Paris , three times to London , and five times to Rome . 
In December 2019, there was a cluster of " pneumonia of unknown cause" cases linked to the Huanan seafood wholesale market . This market has thousands of stalls selling various animals, such as fish, chickens, pheasants , bats , marmots , venomous snakes, spotted deer , and other wild animals. After the corona virus was identified as the cause of this disease, suspicions arose that the new corona virus had an animal origin.   
Most of the coronavirus circulates among animals, but six of these species evolved and are capable of infecting humans, as seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and four other coronaviruses that cause mild respiratory symptoms. like a cold . The six of them can be transmitted from human to human.  
In 2002, with civets as the source of the virus, the SARS outbreak began in mainland China and spread to Canada and the United States with the help of several supercriters and the presence of international flights. As a result, more than 700 people died worldwide.  The last SARS case was reported in 2004.    At the time, the Chinese government was criticized by the WHO for being slow to deal with the virus.  Ten years after SARS, the Arabian camel- related coronavirus disease , MERS, killed more than 850 people in 27 countries. The coronavirus outbreak from Wuhan has been linked to a market selling animals for consumption, so the disease is thought to have originated from animals.  This raises concerns that the new coronavirus outbreak will resemble the SARS outbreak.   These concerns are exacerbated by estimates that a large number of tourists will be vacationing on Chinese New Year, which starts on January 25, 2020
The World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO) has praised the efforts of Chinese authorities in managing and tackling the coronavirus with Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus expressing "confidence in China's approach to controlling the epidemic" and calling for the public to "remain calm". 
The WHO noted differences between the 2003 SARS outbreak, in which Chinese authorities were accused of secrecy hindering prevention and containment efforts, and the current case of a virus outbreak in which the central government "has provided regular updates to avoid panic ahead of the Lunar New Year holidays."  In reaction to the central government's decision to impose a transport ban in Wuhan , WHO representative Gauden Galea said that while "certainly not a recommendation WHO has made", it is also "a very important indication of a commitment to contain the epidemic virus in place. most concentrated "and called it" unprecedented in the history of public health ". 
On January 30, 2020, WHO declared the outbreak status in 2019-nCoV as Health Emergency of Global for the sixth time since the outbreak of swine flu in 2009 . This is due to the risk of global spread, especially to low and middle income countries without a strong health system capable of providing surveillance once the possibility of human-to-human transmission is confirmed
Indonesian Government response
In anticipation of the spread of the coronavirus that could spread to Indonesia, the Indonesian government has taken various measures to prevent the virus from reaching Indonesia. One way is to establish 132 referral hospitals  which are directly under the Port Health Office (KKP) (previously only 100 hospitals).  Several hospitals in various regions have also become referrals, such as RSPI Sulianti Saroso ,  RSUD Tarakan ,  and the Gatot Soebroto Army Central Hospital . 
Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi announced a temporary suspension of the visa-free policy for Chinese citizens, temporarily suspended the issuance of visas-on-arrival for Mainland China , and prohibited visitors who were in China for 14 days from entering or transiting in Indonesia. In addition, flights to and from Mainland China were suspended as of February 5
Evacuation of Indonesian citizens
On January 29, the Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) prepared three aircraft including two Boeing 737s and one C-130 Hercules aircraft with a battalion of health experts to help evacuate Indonesian nationals and other citizens from Wuhan. Previously, the TNI-AU waited for instructions from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and was on standby for 24 hours if the order was given.  
On February 1, the evacuation of 245 Indonesians from Hubei Province (including Wuhan) began. They will be quarantined in Natuna Regency for 14 days.  An evacuation team consisting of 42 people departed from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport starting at 13.00 WIB .  The evacuation process is planned to take approximately 9 hours. For this purpose, the Government leases a Batik Air aircraft of the Airbus A330 -300 type.  They arrived at Hang Nadim Airport in Batam on 2 February at 08.45 WIB and were immediately taken to Raden Sadjad Air Base, Natuna Islands .   Of the 245 Indonesians who will be evacuated, only 238 have arrived in Indonesia.
China's response to the virus has been praised by some foreign leaders.  US President Donald Trump thanked Chinese President Xi Jinping "on behalf of the American People" on January 24, 2020 on Twitter, stating that "China has worked very hard to control the coronavirus. The United States highly appreciates their efforts and transparency." and declared that "Everything will work out well."  German Health Minister Jens Spahn , in an interview at Bloomberg Television, said in comparison with China's response to SARS in 2003: "There is a big difference with SARS. We have a much more transparent China. China's actions were much more effective in the first days." He also praised international cooperation and communication in dealing with this virus. 
At Sunday mass in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City on 26 January 2020, Pope Francis praised the "great commitment by the Chinese community that has been put in place to tackle the coronavirus" and began a closing prayer for "those who are sick because of the virus that has spread to China "
Tourism in China has been hit by travel restrictions and fears of the coronavirus, including bans on domestic and international tour groups.  Many airlines canceled or reduced the number of flights to China and some travel advisories warned their citizens not to travel to China. Many countries, including France, Britain, the United States and Japan, have evacuated their nationals from Wuhan and Hubei province. 
The majority of schools and universities have extended their annual holidays until mid-February.  Overseas students enrolled in Chinese universities have returned to their home countries for fear of being infected with the first cases reported by Nepal and Kerala , both students who have returned home.  
The Chinese Ministry of Finance announced that it would fully subsidize personal medical expenses incurred by patients
On January 6, 2020, the Taiwan Center for Disease Control implemented temperature checks for every direct flight from Wuhan to Taiwan.  After Taiwan reported its first coronavirus case in Taiwan on January 21, Taiwan has raised its travel alert status in Wuhan to level 3, recommending avoiding all non-essential travel to Wuhan. 
On January 24, the Taiwanese government announced to temporarily ban the export of face masks for a month to supply masks to its citizens.   On February 2, 2020, the Epidemic Command Center decided to postpone the opening of primary and secondary schools until February 25 and the end of primary and secondary schools until July 14
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said that "the new coronavirus has a huge impact on tourism, our economy and society as a whole".   There are reports that face masks have sold out across the country and there is pressure on the health care system as the demand for health checks increases.  Convenience stores said their stock of face masks ran out within one day.  Chinese, or people considered to be ethnic Chinese, report discrimination in Japan because Japanese people fear the possibility of transmitting the virus.  Minister of Health has shown that the situation has not yet reached the point where mass gatherings should be canceled. 
This virus is thought to have a negative impact on the Japanese economy. Mitsubishi UFJ analyst Morgan Stanley predicted that the economic impact of the outbreak would be worse than SARS because tourism plays a bigger role in Japan's current economy.  Economy minister Yasutoshi Nishimura also warned that the virus outbreak could have a strong impact on the Japanese economy due to logistical disruptions and factory operations.  Japanese airlines have started suspending flights to China  and JTB, the country's largest travel agency, has canceled all tours to China. Many companies, including Toyota, have shut down all their production lines in Mainland China  and Honda has evacuated all of its staff from Wuhan. 
S&P Global noted that the companies hit hardest were those covering the travel, cosmetics and retail sectors most exposed to Chinese tourism.  It was noted that the increase in sales of face masks and protective gear is unlikely to offset the economic downturn. 
The outbreak itself has become a concern for the 2020 Summer Olympics which are scheduled to take place in Tokyo from the end of July. The Japanese government has taken extra precautions to help minimize the impact of the virus outbreak.   The Tokyo Olympics organizing committee and the International Olympic Committee have been monitoring the impact of the outbreak on Japan
Among ASEAN member countries , Singapore is estimated to be one of the most affected countries according to Maybank .  Economists warn that the viral outbreak will have an impact on the country's economy , but it is too early to give a specific answer. The tourism sector is considered a "direct concern" in addition to the impact on production lines due to disruptions to manufacturing and logistics in mainland China.  Singapore is experiencing panic buying basic necessities  , and masks, thermometers, and various sanitation products despite the government's requests not to do so .  
Maybank economists assess Thailand as the country most at risk, where the threat of the impact of the spread of the corona virus on tourism caused the baht exchange rate to fall to its lowest level in seven months. 
In Malaysia, economists predict that the outbreak will affect the country's GDP, trade and investment flows, commodity prices and tourist arrivals.  Initially, the Le Tour de Langkawi cycling race was reportedly canceled, but organizers stated that the race would continue as usual. However, two cycling teams, the Hengxiang Cycling Team and the Giant Cycling Team, both from China, were withdrawn from participating in the competition for fear of the coronavirus outbreak.  As the plague situation worsened, several concerts were to be held in Kuala Lumpur , such as Kenny G , Jay Chou ,The Wynners , Super Junior , Rockaway Festival and Miriam Yeung were postponed, and the concert of South Korean boy band Seventeen was canceled. 
Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen paid a special visit to China with the aim of showing Cambodia's support to China in fighting the coronavirus outbreak
In India, economists predict the short-term impact of the coronavirus outbreak will be limited to the supply chains of major conglomerates, particularly pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, cars, textiles and electronics. The worst impact on global trade logistics is also expected to be due to logistical disruptions in Mainland China, but due to the combined risks of regional geopolitical tensions, the broader trade war and Brexit . 
In Sri Lanka, observers estimate the limited short-term economic impact on the tourism and transport sectors.